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ISLAMIC EGYPT ‘639 – 969 ‘A.D

IN 639 THE Arabian army of Caliph Omar led by Amr Ben El-As
Took over Egypt.
Abandoning the Capital of Alexandria and founded Fustat at the apex of the Delta
and built there a Mosque that carries his name.
Initially the process of Arabisation and the spread of Islam were slow as the new Language and religion
Were not forced on Egypt, although the country was ruled by governors appointed by Islamic Caliphs.
Following a rapid succession of governors caused by tribal rivalry during the Umayyad and Abbasid periods
The Caliphs appointed as rulers Turks rather than Arabs.
Two of theses Turkish governors succeeded in establishing short lived Dynasties:
- The Tulunids 868 A.D
- The Ikhsidid 905 A.D
A series of ineffective governors contributed to the downfall of the Abbasid supremacy state in 969 A.D
General Jawhar of Shiite Fatimid state succeeded in invading Egypt.

The Fatimid’s and the Ayyubids ‘969 – 1250’ A.D
Egypt became an independent rival to the Abbasside Caliphate under the Fatimid’s who established Cairo
And founded the great Mosque-Collage of Al Azhar and made Egypt an important religious and
Intellectual Center.
They outlawed the Suni section and introduced the Shiite doctrine which was, however, never widely accepted Internal problems led to the invasion of Egypt in 1169 by Syrian army. One of its commanders Saladin was Appointed as vizier by the Fatamids and later established the Ayyubid dynasty.

Under the Ayyubids Egypt reverted to Sunni doctrine Sultan Kamel was forced to reach a settlement with
The Crusaders in 1229 A.D in order to strengthen their army the Ayyubids purchased more Turkish slaves 
The ‘Mamluks’ on eof whom was eventually elated to the position of Sultan.

Mamluks and Ottomans ‘1250 – 1798’
Egypt became the unrivalled political, economic and cultural center of the Arab world Many Mosques
And collages were built and the Arabic Language and cultural spread throughout the Country.
Internal and external problems in the Mamluk Empire Led to its defeat in 1516 – 17 by the Ottomans
And Egypt became A province governed from Istanbul by a viceroy, but the Mamluks remained the political
Elite holding the real power in Egypt until Napoleon invaded Egypt.


 
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